The total reported area of Mahesana is 439153 hectares, of which 1.63% is forest, 1.19% is barren land, 7.18% is under non agricultural use, 83.88% is cultivable land, 6.12% is grazing land and 4.33% is uncultivable land. However, 79.55% of total reported area is net cropped area and 65.55% of total reported area is irrigated.

Geographically, Mahesana taluka has been the biggest taluka sharing 18.96% of district area, while Satlasana taluka has been the smallest taluka sharing 7.02% of area of district. Satlasana shares maximum forest area (87.80%) of the district, while no other taluka except vijapur share the forest area of the district.

In 1961, exploratory drilling for prospecting of oil and natural gas in Mehsana district was undertaken by the Oil and Natural Gas Commission. Several structures have been explored uptil now. Till now the commission has drilled 153 wells, in the structure, out of which about 105 wells have been completed as oil wells, 15 as gas wells, and the remaining wells are under proper testing/stimulation/observation. The oil is being dispatched to the Koyali Refinery (Vadodara District).

Mahesana taluka shares largest area under non agricultural use as well as under cultivation, while satlasana shares least area under non agricultural use as well as under cultivation. Mahesana shares largest net cropped area as well as net irrigated area, while Satlasana shares least.

The major crops of Mehsana are potato, cotton, Tobacco, Oilseads, castor seeds, cumin psylliumse and Anise.

Asia’s second largest dairy “Dudhsagar Milk Cooperative Dairy” and largest market yard “Unjha” is located in Mehsana.

A number of primary industries including dairy, and oil and natural gas are situated in around the city. The primary sector, including agriculture and animal husbandry, since majority of the workforce is engaged in this sector.
Majority of the workforce is engaged in agriculture and allied activities are major livelihood in Mehsana. Almost 53.29% of working population engaged in agriculture sector out of which 43.85 are cultivators and 56.15% are agriculture laborers. Almost 88.56 of cultivators and 61.65% of the agricultural laborers are male. Out of cropped are 84.60% of area is irrigated and 48.11% of irrigation is shared by food crops and 51.88% of irrigation is shared by non food crops.